Not sure why this is downvoted, it's a useful discussion.
1) I've always heard them referred to as "static methods".
2) The only way to see it is to follow the links. The documentation is
definitely misleading in this case.
3/4) The typical way to do this in java is to not import one of the
classes, and fully-qualify its class name. So if you elected to import
java.text.DateFormat and not the android version, you'd do
DateFormat df = android.text.format